Straw purchasing in particular is of growing concern. This is when individuals with little to no criminal history obtain a firearms licence and purchase weapons legally to sell or give to the criminal market. Often, family or girlfriends of offenders are used as straw purchasers. When it comes to theft, firearms are stolen from residences, vehicles and, in some cases, gun ranges or arms dealers. They are then introduced to the black market. Theft is particularly an issue in rural areas, where there are a high number of long guns. Fraud occurs when offenders create fake identification and Possession and Acquisition Licenses (PALs) and purchase firearms from licensed firearms dealers. Smuggling often means firearms are brought up illegally from the United States, where regulations are more relaxed. Offenders then bring them into Canada to sell within the black market. An emerging trend is manufacturing, surrounding 3D-printed firearms and firearms parts. They can be used by the individuals producing them, or sold illegally.